Table of Contents
What is the control of one set of genes by another?
Gene regulation is the process of controlling which genes in a cell’s DNA are expressed (used to make a functional product such as a protein).
What are controlling genes?
Control genes, commonly defined as genes that are ubiquitously expressed at stable levels in different biological contexts, have been used to standardize quantitative expression studies for more than 25 yr.
What controls Hox genes?
One group of animal genes containing homeobox sequences is specifically referred to as Hox genes. This cluster of genes is responsible for determining the general body plan, such as the number of body segments of an animal, the number and placement of appendages, and animal head-tail directionality.
What are Hox genes and what do they do?
Hox Genes. Hox genes are members of the homeotic transcription factor family that play a key role in controlling the body plan along the cranio-caudal axis (also referred to as anterior–posterior), and specify segment identity of tissues within the embryo.
What is an inducible gene?
Inducible genes are those that have variable activity, depending on the needs of the cell. For example, the glucose transporter proteins that muscle cells produce in response to insulin are the product of inducible genes. Insulin stimulates their activity. Silenced genes are those that have been permanently turned off.
What does introns stand for?
An intron (for intragenic region) is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product. In other words, introns are non-coding regions of an RNA transcript, or the DNA encoding it, that are eliminated by splicing before translation.
What are the types of gene control?
All three domains of life use positive regulation (turning on gene expression), negative regulation (turning off gene expression), and co-regulation (turning multiple genes on or off together) to control gene expression, but there are some differences in the specifics of how these jobs are carried out between …
What are the 3 types of genes?
Bacteria have three types of genes: structural, operator, and regulator. Structural genes code for the synthesis of specific polypeptides. Operator genes contain the code necessary to begin the process of transcribing the DNA message of one or more structural genes into mRNA.
What is Dix gene?
Dixin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DIXDC1 gene. When active it stops cancer metastasis due to extreme stickiness, both in vitro and in vivo.
What does the antennapedia gene control?
Antennapedia (abbreviated Antp) is a Hox gene first discovered in Drosophila which controls the formation of legs during development. Loss-of-function mutations in the regulatory region of this gene result in the development of the second leg pair into ectopic antennae.
How do Hox genes control gene expression?
Hox genes are turned on in specific patterns by the protein products of the gap genes and pair-rule genes. Their expression patterns are refined—by the products of these genes and through interactions with other Hox proteins—as the embryo develops.
What is a facultative gene?
A facultative gene is a gene only transcribed when needed as opposed to a constitutive gene. An inducible gene is a gene whose expression is either responsive to environmental change or dependent on the position in the cell cycle.
What are genes and genes?
Genes can be turned on and off. Genes can be moved between species. DNA responds to signals from outside the cell. Different genes are active in different kinds of cells. Master genes control basic body plans. Development balances cell growth and death. A genome is an entire set of genes. Living things share common genes.
What is it called when a gene has multiple alleles?
When multiple different alleles for a gene are present in a species’s population it is called polymorphic. Most different alleles are functionally equivalent, however some alleles can give rise to different phenotypic traits. A gene’s most common allele is called the wild type, and rare alleles are called mutants.
What is the complement of genes in a chromosome?
The total complement of genes in an organism or cell is known as its genome, which may be stored on one or more chromosomes. A chromosome consists of a single, very long DNA helix on which thousands of genes are encoded. The region of the chromosome at which a particular gene is located is called its locus.
Is the genetic code the same for all organisms?
The genetic code is nearly the same for all known organisms. Fluorescent microscopy image of a human female karyotype, showing 23 pairs of chromosomes. The DNA is stained red, with regions rich in housekeeping genes further stained in green.