Table of Contents
How do cells know what type of cell to become?
Signals from the environment—chemicals, extracellular proteins/hormones/factors, neighboring cells, the physical environment—converge on the cell, typically activating a signaling cascade that leads to gene expression. These specific proteins change the phenotype into that of a more specialized cell.
Do brain cells have the same DNA as skin cells?
We learned in biology class that every cell in the body has the same DNA. Whether a heart cell, skin cell or muscle cell—they all read from the same genetic blueprint. Compared to DNA in other cells, neurons have more, less and rearranged DNA. …
How does one cell become a skin cell and another a?
How does one cell become a brain cell and another a skin cell? This is called cell differentiation and it is driven by chemicals/chemical gradients in the blastula development stage of the embryo (the early stage of development when it is a hollow ball of cells).
What happens to genes during cell specialization?
During the process of cell specialization, in each cell types; only specific genes are “turned on” and transcribed to RNA and translated to proteins. Rest of the genes remain inactive. That is, genes active in the neurons may not be active in skin cells.
Is the genetic makeup of all cells in an adult body?
The genetic makeup or DNA of all cells in an adult body is the same. The reason is differential expression of genes in cells. During the process of cell specialization, in each cell types; only specific genes are “turned on” and transcribed to RNA and translated to proteins.
Why are some genes expressed in all types of cells?
Remember, there are some genes that are expressed in all types of cells or genes essential for survival of all cell types like genes making membranes or genes of major metabolic pathways like glycolysis.. These genes are called ‘house keeping’ genes.